|Minor endolaryngeal hematomas or lacerations without detectable fracturesFlexible laryngoscopy recommended.Typically managed medically, e.g., steroids, antibiotics, humidification, voice rest, etc.
|More severe edema, hematoma, minor mucosal disruption without exposed cartilage, or nondisplaced fractures.Direct laryngoscopy and esophagoscopySerial examinations, may require tracheotomy +/- medical adjuncts
|Massive edema, large mucosal lacerations, exposed cartilage, displaced fractures, or vocal cord immobility.Direct laryngoscopy and esophagoscopy in ORTracheotomy often required, exploration and surgical repair generally required
|Same as group 3, but more severe, with disruption of anterior larynx, unstable fractures, two or more fracture lines, or severe mucosal injuries.Direct laryngoscopy and esophagoscopyTracheotomy required, stent placement to maintain larynx integrity
|Complete laryngotracheal separation.Urgent airway evaluation and managementTracheotomy may be difficult due to altered anatomy, complex laryngotracheal repair via low cervical incision
Similar to Schaefer laryngeal trauma classifcation with addition of Group 5 in Fuhrman laryngeal trauma classification*
Summary Contributed by Emily Zhang